Flame Spread Rating of Wood Products Used as Wall or Ceiling Finish

    Table 1
Reported Flame Spread Indices
Material1
ASTM E-84 Flame Spread2
Source3
Material1
ASTM E-84 Flame Spread2
Source3
LUMBER  SOFTWOOD PLYWOOD (Exterior Glue5) 
Birch, Yellow  105-110  UL  Cedar 3/8"  70-95  APA 
Cedar, Pacific Coast Yellow  78  CWC  Douglas Fir 1/4"  150  APA 
Cedar, Western Red  70  HPVA  Douglas Fir 5/16"  115-155  APA 
Cedar, Western Red  73  CWC  Douglas Fir 3/8"  110-150  APA 
Cherry 3/4"  76  HPVA  Douglas Fir 1/2"  130-150  APA 
Cottonwood  115  UL  Douglas Fir 5/8"  95-130  APA 
Cypress  145-150  UL  Hemlock 3/8"  75-160  APA 
Elm 3/4"  76  HPVA  Southern Pine 1/4"  95-110  APA 
Fir, Douglas  70-100  UL  Southern Pine 3/8"  100-105  APA 
Fir, Douglas 3/4" flooring  83-98  WEY  Southern Pine 5/8"  90  APA 
Fir, Amabilis (Pacific Silver)  69  CWC  Redwood 3/8"  95  UL 
Gum, Red  140-155  UL  Redwood 5/8"  75  UL 
Hemlock, West Coast  60-75  UL  HARDWOOD PLYWOOD6 
Hemlock, West Coast  73  WEY  Ash 3/4" - Particleboard Core  134  HPVA 
Maple (flooring)  104  CWC  Birch 1/4" - Douglas Fir Veneer Core  135-173  HPVA 
Oak, Red or White  100  UL  Birch 1/4" - Fuma Veneer Core  127  HPVA 
Oak, Red 3/4"  84  HPVA  Birch 3/4" - Douglas Fir Veneer Core  114  HPVA 
Oak, White 3/4"  77  HPVA  Birch 3/4" - High Density Veneer Core  114  HPVA 
Pecan 3/4"  84  HPVA  Birch 3/4" - Particleboard Core  124  HPVA 
Pine, Eastern White  85  CWC  Birch 3/4" - MDF Core  134  HPVA 
Pine, Idaho White  72  HPVA  Honduras Mahogany 3/4" - Particleboard Core  105  HPVA 
Pine, Idaho White  82  WEY  Lauan 11/64"  167  NIST 
Pine, Lodgepole  98  WEY  Lauan 1/4"  150  HPVA 
Pine, Northern White  120-215  UL  Oak 1/4" - Douglas Fir Veneer Core  153  HPVA 
Pine, Ponderosa4  105-230  UL  Oak 3/4" - MDF Core  123  HPVA 
Pine, Ponderosa  115  HPVA2  PARTICLEBOARD 
Pine, Red  142  CWC  3/16" (Aromatic Cedar Flakeboard)  156  HPVA 
Pine, Southern Yellow  130-195  UL  3/8"  200  UL 
Pine, Western White  75  UL  1/2"  135  HPVA 
Poplar  170-185  UL  1/2"  156  NIST 
Redwood  70  UL  5/8"  153  NIST 
Redwood 3/8"  102  UL  11/16"  168  UL 
Spruce, Engelmann  55  HPVA2  3/4"  145  UL 
Spruce, Northern  65  UL  3/4"(Exterior Glue5 88-98  APA2 
Spruce, Sitka  74  CWC  MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD - MDF
Spruce, Western  100  UL  3/8"  140  UL 
Walnut  130-140  UL  7/16"  125  HPVA 
Walnut 3/4"  101  HPVA  5/8"  120  HPVA 
 ORIENTED STRAND BOARD, WAFERBOARD (Exterior Glue5 11/16"  140  UL 
5/16"  127-138  APA2  3/4"  140  HPVA 
7/16"  86-150  APA2 3/4"  140  HPVA 
1/2"  74-172  APA2  3/4"  130  HPVA 
3/4"  147-158  APA2  1"  90  UL 
 Copyright 1997, 1998  
American Forest & Paper Association
SHAKES and SHINGLES
Western Red Cedar Shakes 1/2"  69  HPVA 
Western Red Cedar Shingles 1/2"  49  HPVA 
 

 

 

 
 
TABLE 1 FOOTNOTES   
1 Thickness of material tested is one-inch nominal except where indicated. 
2 The ASTM E-84 test method has been revised a number of times during the years referenced by the source reports. However, the E-84 test apparatus has changed little over this period. Slightly different flame spread indices, usually lower, result when recent E-84 flame spread calculation techniques are applied to older wood product data. These changes in flame spread indices are not sufficient to change the flame spread class for the wood products described in this report. 
3 Sources:  
APA -APA-The Engineered Wood Association, Research Reports 128, Revised, August 1979. 
APA2 - APA-The Engineered Wood Association Test Results 
CWC -Wood and Fire Safety, Canadian Wood Council, 1991.  
HPVA -Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association, Test Reports, 202, 203, 335, 336, 337, 592, and 596; Special flame spread performance tests, Aug. 1974; T9234, T9237, T9317, T9344, T9354, May 1995; T9422, T9430, T9431, T9453, T9665, Feb/July 1997.  
HPVA2 - Hardwood Plywood and Veneer Association, March/April 1995.  
NIST-National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly National Bureau of Standards), Technical Notes 879 and 945.  
UL -Underwriter's Laboratory, UL 527, May 1971; Subject 723, Assignment 71SC509, Mar 15 &16,1971; Assignment 84NK1898, File R10917, Mar 9, 1984.  
WEY -Weyerhaueser Fire Laboratory, 1973, 1987, January & February 1988.
4 Average of 18 tests was 154 with three values over 200. 
5 Exposure 1 or exterior. 
6 Flame spread of plywood is affected by the species of the face veneer but can also be influenced by the species of the underlying core veneer. Various panel constructions involving certain core species show a relatively high degree of variability and potential to yield flame spread values above 200. Panel constructions involving cores of aspen, sumauma, yellow poplar and white fir have exhibited this behavior with average flame spread indices ranging from 78 to 259. Other factors, in addition to species, including material and process variables related to specific manufacturers can also affect flame spread. Thus, for plywood panels with certain core species, test data from the actual manufacturer is particularly important in establishing the flame spread classification of the product. 
Copyright 1997, 1998  
American Forest & Paper Association